Draft Programme of the RCP, USA
Draft Programme Part 2
In capitalist society, the institutions of knowledge, entertainment, and the ideological life of the society—the mass media, schools, laboratories and centers for science, art, education, and sports—are dominated, shaped and twisted to meet the needs of capital and the bourgeois class.
Specialists, artists, and intellectuals—even those who come from the working class and oppressed peoples—are walled off from the masses in many ways, and the system prevents them from serving the people. Elitism and fear of the masses are perpetuated by the system. Greed, prejudice, and superstition infuse the culture. Artists, scientists, and educators who resist are hounded and marginalized. Every scientific advance, everything of beauty—even knowledge itself—is turned into a commodity, and into capital.
The proletarian revolution will liberate and transform all these institutions so that they no longer serve a system of exploitation, inequality, and oppression and, instead, will put them into the hands of the revolutionary masses and their leadership.
The historical experience of the proletariat in power has shown that it is a complex challenge to revolutionize all these spheres, to overcome the domination of the bourgeoisie and unleash the creativity of the masses of people and bring forward something radically new. In carrying out all-around dictatorship over the bourgeoisie, the challenge is to really turn things upside down and do away with oppression without stifling the wrangling over ideas and theories.
The proletarian revolution needs an atmosphere of vigorous and lively struggle, critical thinking, unconventional ideas, people challenging authority, the conflict of different views, and the sights of society raised to cardinal questions. It needs an atmosphere where creativity and experimentation will no longer be motivated by personal gain but for the benefit of society.
The proletarian revolution needs an informed, creative, and revolutionary people, who know about the world and are trained in the outlook of the proletariat—whose historic mission is to liberate all humanity.
Breaking Down the Division of Labor
Our vision is to get to the point where everyone in society is productive and creative in dealing both with ideas and with material things and where neither material things nor ideas are any longer commodities or capital. With the seizure of power we can begin on this path, but getting there will be a process full of twists and turns—involving waves of cultural revolutions and waves of revolution all around the world. And historical experience teaches us that at key turning points this will be a life-and-death struggle for the proletariat to prevent the restoration of bourgeois rule.
A crucial part of revolutionizing society—in the socialist transition to communism—is to break down the oppressive division of labor between those who work with their heads and those who work with their hands. Our method is to work at this from two sides:
From one side, this means leading and assisting the specialists and intellectuals to put their training at the service of the proletariat and to combine this with a critical spirit. It means bringing forward artists, scientists, educators, and other specialists who not only serve socialist construction and scientific experiment but also serve the class struggle, including by raising important and often pressing questions that would otherwise not be raised.
Working at it from the other side, the objective of the proletarian revolution and its new state is to enable the masses to master the different spheres of society, to have a deep appreciation for the contradictions and problems involved—to be “red and expert” and to lead in revolutionizing all these spheres on that basis. In different fields, policies will be developed to combine the work of specialists with the masses—so that non-professionals can lead professionals and specialists can revolutionize their practice in the process of working with the masses.
The principles that people should be “both red and expert” and that the non-professional should lead the professional are crucial for the development of socialist society and the advance to communism. These principles embody a very important understanding:
Each sphere and discipline in the arts, sciences, etc., has its own particular features and concerns, and thus it is necessary for people to apply themselves to and continually learn more about the particular characteristics, contradictions, and laws involved. But at a deeper level, there is a unifying outlook and methodology that can and should be applied to these various fields and disciplines. As Mao Tsetung explained, Marxism does not replace but does embrace all these spheres.
These principles also give expression to the fact that all these realms can and must be the concern of, and be taken up by, not just a few people specializing in them but by the broad masses of people and ultimately by society as a whole. This is essential so that inequalities in society can be overcome and work in all these spheres can be marked by and benefit from the broadest, most diverse and lively engagement and wrangling, and at the same time can serve the people and the cause of emancipating humanity and continually enhancing our ability to know and change the world.
The Artistic and Intellectual Fields
Our proletarian ideology leads us to appreciate the importance of science and other intellectual and artistic work that more directly serves the ongoing struggle of the proletariat, on the one hand; and, on the other hand, to appreciate scientific inquiry and intellectual engagement and artistic experimentation that is not tied in such a direct way—and certainly not in a pragmatic, “instrumentalist” way—to the policy and more immediate aims of the proletarian party at any given time.
We stress the importance of a fundamentally collective framework and approach to intellectual and artistic work, which also allows for and encourages the initiative of individuals, within the overall collective framework and spirit. Mass movements to study and apply dialectical materialism in all fields will take place in an atmosphere of debate over different views and schools of thought.
The proletariat in power will need a broad united front of scientists, artists, educators, and intellectuals in all fields. For a period of time, the proletariat will be faced with the necessity to rely on many professionals and specialists trained in the old society. We will have to take into account that some of these specialists earned large incomes in the old society, and the proletariat may have to pay non-Party people in these positions quite a bit more than production workers, while we work to train new revolutionary intellectuals and restrict these differences.
Upon coming to power, the proletariat will immediately take control of the mass media—take it out of the hands of the big corporations and the bourgeois state and put it to the service of the world revolution. The reactionary trash on the TV and radio, in the newspapers, etc., will be swept away. In its place will be news, political debate, educational programs, and entertainment that will enable the masses of people to know and change the world.
The major news and information media will be under the direction of the proletarian state and the leadership of the Party. The goal is for the proletariat to master the media—to create public opinion for continuing the revolution, in the context of lively debate over the crucial questions of society and the world revolution. In this spirit, some funds will be allocated for independent publications and media access.
The masses will have unprecedented access to print, broadcast, and electronic media such as the internet. Publishing facilities will be available to the masses on many levels. And special efforts will be made for the proletarians and formerly oppressed nationalities to have access and training in media technologies. International news will be widely available, and there will be an atmosphere of debate over political and international affairs, including the publication of dissenting views.
Counter-revolutionary attempts to overthrow the proletariat will be suppressed; but the main policy of the proletariat in the media will not be censorship but the promotion of debate, criticism, and struggle over the direction of society. Criteria will be developed to assist the masses to evaluate different views and positions (see the appendix “Proletarian Dictatorship, Democracy and the Rights of the People”).
Experimentation and development of new technology will be encouraged in tempo with the technical capacity of society and the priorities of the world revolution.
ART AND CULTURE
Literature and art, theater, music, and movies play a powerful role in shaping public opinion and promoting one kind of outlook and values or another. Anyone who has ever been moved to tears or anger or laughter, had their hopes and sights raised, or been provoked to action by a concert or movie, knows this is true. But what is not obvious is that, in class society, all culture serves the interests of one class or another.
Revolutionary art plays a crucial role leading up to the seizure of power. And once the proletariat seizes power, the creation of a whole new culture is needed to transform all of society. Our goal is a qualitatively new culture that is guided by the outlook of the proletariat and expresses its interests in overthrowing everything reactionary and revolutionizing all of society.
This is not a simple question or a problem easily solved: Art is a distinct mode of communication and experience—one way that people understand the world. Art is drawn from life but is “higher than life.” Art can tap deep feelings and aspirations, unleashing the imagination and giving people a deeper understanding of reality and how to change it.
Art plays an important role in people’s lives, connected with our “need to be amazed.” And producing cultural works not only with revolutionary content but also a high level of artistic and technical quality requires people with training and skills.
The masses in the U.S. are accustomed to a large quantity and variety of art. And the masses would not support the proletarian state for long if it failed to meet this need.
With the seizure of power the proletariat will lead in revolutionizing culture—encouraging and supporting diverse works that assist the masses to revolutionize society and the whole world. This revolutionary art will unleash the imagination of the people—free from superstition.
Our aim is to promote a vigorous process of creating and popularizing revolutionary culture and criticizing the old oppressive culture, and to encourage a wrangling atmosphere of different trends, schools of thought, and experimentation.
The proletarian state will encourage innovation and variety in forms and styles of art. The people need works with themes that are directly related to the ongoing revolutionary struggles in society and the world, as well as works that are indirectly related but shed light on different contradictions and aspects of life. The proletariat will lead the artists and masses to develop collective forms for the creation of art, while allowing for and encouraging individual initiative within this collective framework.
Historical experience has shown that the creation of proletarian art involves much conscious struggle over political content and artistic form; and laboratories will be established for the creation of model works—as pacesetters in the arts.
In preparing for revolution, and during the revolutionary war, the proletariat will seek to unite as broadly as possible with professional cultural workers—to develop a vigorous culture of resistance to the old order and to create and popularize revolutionary works of art. And the Party will unite the masses to defend these artists against the attempts of the bourgeoisie to crush them.
Artists and the Masses
With the victory of the revolution, the proletariat will unite as broadly as possible with people in the artistic fields to create a new revolutionary culture for socialist society.
At the same time, we will support, bring forward, and rely on masses of workers and their firm allies in creating and popularizing revolutionary culture—and professional artists will be encouraged to draw from forms and works created by the masses. The revolutionary culture of the youth will be encouraged as a vibrant, transforming force in socialist society.
Works of art and the means to create them will be widely available to the masses as never before. Cultural productions by professional artists will be staged throughout the country, including in workplaces and workers’ neighborhoods for free or a minimal price of admission.
Part-time cultural groups will be organized in workplaces, neighborhoods, farms and rural areas, and in the armed forces, to popularize works produced by professional artists and to unleash and give direction to the creativity of workers and other basic masses in producing revolutionary culture. Emphasis will be given to learning from the innovations of the proletarian youth in the arts and providing arts training to the youth.
The proletariat will foster a “wrangling” atmosphere with regard to works of art. Our aim is to assist the masses in doing away with all the oppressive ideas and ways of thinking, and in developing a new liberating culture that points to a future without class distinctions. The artists and masses will take part in criticizing reactionary works: struggling against racism, national chauvinism, male supremacy, capitalist ideology, and unscientific thinking. And there will be mass dialogue, debate, and criticism concerning the content of revolutionary works and how to develop standards and criteria.
In all this the proletariat will adopt methods and policies that take into account the complexity and levels of meaning and interpretation of works of art. And there will be an atmosphere of experiment and openness to new ideas and trends and learning from different schools of thought. Emphasis will be on creating and popularizing new revolutionary works, but our policy will be to learn from, study and preserve important works of the past—especially works that opposed the old order.
With regard to works of art that reflect discontent with and opposition to the proletarian state, the orientation will not be to suppress them but to develop mass criticism of them. In the policies of the proletarian state there will even be a place for publishing and displaying some reactionary works of high artistic quality to assist the masses in raising their class consciousness, sharpening their ability to distinguish what serves the interests of the masses from what serves their oppressors, and developing their mastery of the whole arena of art and literature. Some reactionary works will have to be suppressed but, again, the basic approach will not be to suppress but to develop mass criticism and debate.
In the arena of culture, the walls separating professional artists and the working masses will be broken down and professional artists will be encouraged and assisted in linking themselves with the masses of working people—to learn from their experiences and ideas in creating cultural works and to assist the masses themselves in creating art.
As part of helping professional artists serve the people through their work, the proletariat will assist them to know the people, to combat elitism, and transform their world outlook. This will include artists taking part in manual labor together with the masses and taking part in political and ideological movements and struggles to continue the revolution.
Through the development of new socialist policies full-time artists will come to know the masses, and worker/artists from the masses will be trained in the skills necessary to produce high quality works of art.
The masses of working people will be supported and led by the Party and the cultural institutions to criticize—and in an overall sense to supervise—the work of professional artists, as well as the cultural works created by the masses themselves. And through this process the masses will learn to lead in and revolutionize the sphere of art and culture.
Equality Between National Cultures
A key question for the socialist revolution is to establish equality between different national cultures. Without this it will be impossible to achieve overall equality between different nationalities or to unite the proletariat, together with its allies, in accordance with their revolutionary interests.
As part of the overall struggle for equality of languages and national cultures, cultural works produced in one language will be translated into other languages. And the orientation will be for performers to learn several different languages and to put on performances and create works in these various languages. The masses of different nationalities will be encouraged to learn from each other in terms of styles and forms of artistic creation.
In culture and language, the policy of autonomy will mean that styles and forms of expression, as well as language, common to people of a particular nationality will be given priority in publications, in the creation of cultural works, etc., in those geographic areas where autonomy is applied. And these will be popularized throughout society as well.
Cultural institutes, such as theaters and museums, which give expression to the artistic and cultural forms of the formerly oppressed nationalities will be developed and supported. And here too dialogue and debate will be promoted concerning the content of the works of art. Traditional forms among the various peoples will be respected and developed and at the same time will be increasingly infused with revolutionary content.
A powerful culture of the multinational proletariat will be encouraged in different national forms. This proletarian culture will be rich in diversity while expressing a unified revolutionary outlook, inspiring the masses of all nationalities to fight for their common interests in revolutionizing society and contributing to the advance of world revolution.
Revolutionary art from around the world will be vigorously promoted.
The proletariat, as it takes control of society, will transform and revolutionize sports. Sports will no longer be under the control of capitalists, twisted to serve private profit; no longer an arena where capitalistic role models, male domination, and reactionary patriotism are fostered; no longer held out as a cruel and unattainable dream of “making it” for millions who are locked in poverty and oppression. Instead sports will be developed as an area where the masses of people can unite, strengthen their health, have fun, and do amazing feats as part of advancing humanity as a whole.
As in the arts, our goal in sports is a mass flowering with high quality performances for the inspiration and entertainment of the people—without the barriers and elitism of the old society. Sports will be broadly organized among the masses. There will be equality for women in training, facilities, exhibition, and professional sports.
Facilities will be built and located throughout the areas where the masses live and work. This will begin with the upgrading and new construction of facilities in the areas which under capitalism are most broken down and with the fewest and worst playgrounds, recreation centers, and so on. Emphasis will be placed on amateur sports and unleashing the creativity of the masses.
Cooperation and the learning of skills and innovations from each other will be emphasized. Competition will still have a place, but it will be secondary and will be taken up in a spirit of friendship not antagonism. In international exchanges, as well as sports activities within the socialist state, we will foster the daring to challenge convention and break new ground, and the unity and solidarity between the masses of people.
Recognizing the role of sports as entertainment for the masses, national sports teams and full-time athletes will be sponsored and subsidized by the state. But the whole professional mentality—where highly skilled athletes who are engaged in sports as a more or less full-time pursuit have special status—will be struggled against.
As with the policy regarding professional artists, our aim will be to narrow, step by step, the differences between full-time athletic performers and the masses of people—involving the professionals in productive labor and political and ideological struggle together with the masses—while at the same time meeting the desire of the masses for exciting high-level sports exhibitions and competitions.
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Scientific research and experimentation can play a powerful role in revolutionizing production and society as a whole and in understanding the world. But under capitalism, science remains chained to the demands of a reactionary and outmoded system. Large branches of scientific research are completely tied to the imperialist military. Scientific researchers are prevented from contributing to the solution of many key problems facing humanity, while massive funds are wasted on projects that only serve to increase private profits and reinforce relations of exploitation and oppression.
Private ownership and secrecy imposed by capitalist corporations and states on scientific discoveries stifle collaboration among researchers, hold back innovation, and prevent use of countless new discoveries for the benefit of the people throughout the world. Potentially valuable inventions and discoveries are used to create products and processes that are harmful to the masses of people—intensifying the pace of work, spreading poisons, and further impoverishing workers and small farmers around the world. And scientists themselves are insulated from the impact their work is having on the masses of people.
Proletarian revolution will place science in the service of the broad masses of people. It will radically transform the priorities of scientific research and unleash science to make new breakthroughs in areas extremely important to the future of humanity—such as uncovering new techniques for environmentally sustainable development, renewable energy sources, and the reduction of pollution in production and transportation.
Medical research will be freed from the straightjacket of pharmaceutical profits and the demands of capitalism as a whole, and priorities will be radically reshaped to focus on health problems facing the people of the world.
Human exploration of outer space will no longer be tied to imperialist war preparations.
Much of scientific research under socialism will be focused on solving specific and urgent problems in production and medicine. But, at the same time, scientific research that is not tied directly to specific problems—as well as theoretical and mathematical forms of scientific exploration—will receive funding and attention in recognition of the important role they play in uncovering the laws of nature.
All the different forms and branches of science will be carried out in an overall framework of serving the needs of the masses, transforming society and breaking down the distinction between mental and manual work. Scientists will be encouraged to develop new collective forms of collaboration—both for the development of new insights into nature and for lively debate over scientific verdicts.
The policy of the proletariat in power will be to encourage a critical spirit and climate of open debate—while struggling for scientists and technical personnel to grasp and apply dialectical materialism, to transform their world outlook, and to take part together with the masses in political and ideological movements.
There will be an “open door” policy—where scientific research, experimentation, development, and theoretical work are carried out in close connection with the masses, in a variety of innovative ways. This open door policy will enable the masses to contribute their experience and insights to the process of scientific exploration related to production, health, and other fields and at the same time to take up and learn many different aspects of science. Research conducted by teams of scientists will be linked to broad mass movements for investigation and experimentation among the working people, and step by step new worker/scientists will be trained in all fields of scientific research and development.
Political leadership by the proletariat and its Party in scientific work will be based on the principles of “red and expert” and the non-professional leading the professional, and other policies regarding intellectuals and intellectual work generally that were discussed earlier. (See, in particular, “Introduction” to this appendix.)
New forums and collaborations will be developed within the institutions of scientific research, to enable the masses of people to be more fully engaged in this sphere and to directly participate in the struggles over the key questions that arise. This will include issues of research priorities, scientific verdicts, applications and implications of scientific discoveries, and the controversies over how to train and organize scientific researchers to better serve the people.
One of the key policies with regard to science will be to broadly popularize the insights, methods and controversies of natural science among the people—to increase their ability to understand and evaluate the issues within the scientific sphere. Such popularization will also be an important way for scientists to contribute to the broader class struggle by promoting a materialist-scientific outlook throughout society and by undermining the influence of anti-scientific theories such as those promoting “genetic determinism” and notions of “racial superiority,” “creationism,” and religious superstition generally.
Education under capitalism is a system of savage inequalities—a system that reproduces inequality. Children in poor communities go to inferior schools with overcrowded classrooms, poorly paid teachers, and lack of materials. For many kids, schools are little more than prisons where the only aim is to maintain control, and students are subjected to armed police, metal detectors, searches, and abuse. The learning process is molded by tests that discriminate against the poor and the oppressed nationalities. In the affluent schools, education is marked by the pursuit of grades and rewards, self-seeking competition, and elitism.
“English Only” policies, and the cutting of affirmative action and programs for African-American and Chicano studies, reinforce national oppression. The spread of religion, fundamentalist morality, and irrational doctrine is increasingly part of the school atmosphere. The increasing promotion of reactionary family values along with unscientific genetic theories regarding differences between men and women—and, to say the least, no serious commitment to equality and emancipation for women—combine to produce hostile and oppressive relations between boys and girls from an early age.
Education under capitalism is not about training new generations in critical thinking. And it is not about training people to know and change the world, to do away with injustice, ignorance, and poverty. Capitalist education is education in capitalism and its outlook—and the idea that these principles and the society they serve cannot be surpassed.
Such an educational process turns history and reality upside down, portraying the history of humanity as a history of “great men,” where geniuses, monarchs, presidents—exploiters and oppressors—are heroes and “role models.” It justifies the most unspeakable acts of imperialist war and plunder. It blots out the class content of all important events and actions in history and the world today. People are trained in all kinds of unscientific thinking about the world and all kinds of nonsense and poison about American society as a model of “freedom and democracy.”
Completely revolutionizing education in theory and practice is a crucial question for the proletariat.
Upon seizing power, the proletariat will immediately take up the need to overcome illiteracy and the lack of even basic education among broad masses in this country. The educational system will be changed at its foundation and the scientific, revolutionary outlook and method of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism (MLM) will be applied to guide education in every aspect.
We will eliminate the tracking system—where elite students, mainly from the privileged classes, are selected and groomed for positions of leadership and authority, while the broad ranks of the proletariat and oppressed nationalities are “tracked” into lower tier jobs or left to find some desperate hustle. This is a system which makes a principle out of the division between mental and manual labor and serves to perpetuate this division of labor and class divisions generally.
The educational policies and practices of the new socialist society will play an important part in overcoming these divisions.
Students will be led to develop knowledge—to be creative and innovative—in all fields from technical and scientific to artistic and cultural. Education will challenge the students to develop critical thinking and will promote, and train the masses in, a scientific outlook, most fundamentally the scientific world outlook and method of dialectical materialism.
From the start, the educational system of the proletarian state will combine rather than separate mental and manual labor, preparing the new generation to carry out and integrate the two. Education will be carried out in close connection with the work and activities of the masses as a whole—in workplaces, neighborhoods, farms, and rural areas—so that students and teachers and other leaders in educational institutions gain a real and overall understanding of how society runs and how the proletariat and formerly oppressed masses are transforming society.
Self-seeking competition will no longer be a guiding principle of education—the standard will be for knowledge and initiative to strengthen the common good.
The whole idea of blind obedience to authority will be criticized. Teachers and others responsible for giving leadership in education will be leaders but not people “whose word is law.” The socialist educational system will work to break down the divisions between professional educators and students—and the masses of people in general.
Educational policy will aim to bring up successors to the proletarian revolution. The students will be educated in the principles and spirit of MLM—including its scientific, critical struggle for the truth, its challenging of tradition and the force of habit and its daring to rebel against reactionary authority, even those claiming the mantle of Marxism itself. Students, teachers, and administrators will be led to take part, together with the masses, in the ideological battle between Marxism and bourgeois reactionary philosophy in various forms throughout society.
The new educational system will expose, criticize, and repudiate all the lies and distortions of the bourgeoisie, especially its propaganda and miseducation that promote white supremacy and male supremacy and chauvinist hostility toward the rest of the international proletariat and the oppressed peoples and nations of the world.
Proletarian internationalism will be a major focus of education, giving people a profound understanding of the reality that the proletariat and masses of people worldwide have a common interest and objective in overthrowing imperialism and uprooting all exploitation and oppression.
Students will be educated in the real history of the oppressed peoples and nations inside and outside the country, and the oppression of women in class society, so that they will gain a deep understanding of the concrete effects of national oppression, the oppression of women, and similar crimes of capitalism—and whose interests are served by this inequality and the ideologies of racism and chauvinism.
Representatives of the masses, including workers and oppressed peoples from other countries, will be invited into the classrooms to give the students a living understanding of these questions, and the students will go out among the workers, formerly oppressed nationalities, women and other masses and hold discussions and struggle with them on these decisive questions.
At the same time as the socialist educational system enables and challenges students to develop critical and creative thinking, and to become expert in various fields, it will work to break down the separation between the broad masses as a whole and the students, especially those full-time students who are enrolled in universities and similar institutions of advanced learning and specialization.
One important role of these institutions will be to train intellectuals and experts in various fields from among the ranks of the masses. This will be part of a process of breaking the domination over these spheres by intellectuals trained—not only technically but ideologically—in the old society. But from the very beginning, and increasingly, the socialist educational system will take concrete steps to combat the tendency for such students to be fashioned into an “elite” standing above and lording it over the masses.
As soon as possible, in tempo with the consolidation of power by the proletariat and its first major victories in establishing control over and undertaking the socialist transformation of the economy, the policy will be adopted of sending all high school graduates to work in the rural areas, in factories and other workplaces, or in some cases into the revolutionary armed forces. Some will stay and work among the masses; others will, after a time, go on to other work or to colleges and universities.
Students who attend colleges and universities will be chosen from among the masses—including older people as well as youth. The criteria for admission to colleges will be based first and above all on demonstrated devotion to the revolutionary cause of the international proletariat, broadness of mind and a critical and revolutionary spirit—as determined through discussion among the masses under the leadership of the Party.
At the same time as students, including those in universities, are brought into closer connection with the masses, colleges will be increasingly established and will function in close connection with the workplaces and neighborhoods, with special attention to the rural areas. Some part-time colleges will be directly connected with workplaces. Specialists in art, science, education, foreign affairs and so on will take part in the higher education of workers.
This kind of education will enable the workers to master different fields on a deep level and will develop worker/intellectuals who can play a leading role in society in all spheres. And, at the same time, it will be another important step in breaking down the ivory tower atmosphere of colleges and in overcoming inequalities in society as a whole.
Representatives of the masses will be organized to take part, together with teachers, educational personnel, and representatives of the students, in leading the schools and struggling to see that these principles and methods of the socialist educational system are upheld and actually implemented.
Overall, the struggle to revolutionize the educational system will be a crucial battleground in the new socialist society, exactly because education plays such a critical role in serving and perpetuating one kind of system or another.
As in other areas of the superstructure, the proletariat will have to wage a protracted and intense fight against the forces of reaction, tradition, and habit. It must do this if it is to establish and develop an educational system that furthers socialist transformation and the transition to communism and trains, in theory and practice, successive generations of class-conscious activists in the great movement of the international proletariat. Thus, while the students will be led to master all fields, from technical and scientific to artistic and cultural, a continual battle must be waged for this to be under the guidance of Marxism and in the interests of the proletariat. Therefore their principal subject will be the class struggle—proletarian revolution.
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